March 2018 - ACS Axial | ACS Publications

From Landfill to Lipstick: Grape Waste as a Cosmetic and Food Ingredient

The world drinks a lot of wine, and that means a lot of grapes are consumed. But not every part of the grape ends up in the bottle. Seeds, stalks, and skins end up in landfills. Now, researchers say they have found useful commercial applications, such as prolonging the shelf life of fatty foods, for these wine leftovers.

Watch as Dr. Changmou Xu of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln explains this recent breakthrough at the 255th ACS National Meeting & Exposition in New Orleans:

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ACS Editors’ Choice: A New Use for the Ancient Chemistry of “Pharaoh’s Snakes”

This week: A new use for the ancient chemistry of “pharaoh’s snakes,” dynamic scaling of exosome sizes
— and more!

Each and every day, ACS grants free access to a new peer-reviewed research article from one of the Society’s journals. These articles are specially chosen by a team of scientific editors of ACS journals from around the world to highlight the transformative power of chemistry. Access to these articles will remain open to all as a public service.

Check out this week’s picks!
Dynamic Scaling of Exosome Sizes

Langmuir, Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/acs.langmuir.7b04080
Installation of the Ether Bridge of Lolines by the Iron- and 2-Oxoglutarate-Dependent Oxygenase, LolO: Regio- and Stereochemistry of Sequential Hydroxylation and Oxacyclization Reactions

Biochemistry, Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/acs.biochem.8b00157
Biotoxin Tropolone Contamination Associated with Nationwide Occurrence of Pathogen Burkholderia plantarii in Agricultural Environments in China

Environ. Sci. Technol., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.7b05915
N-Butylpyrrolidinone as Alternative Solvent for Solid-Phase Peptide Synthesis

Org. Process Res. Dev., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/acs.oprd.7b00389
High-Resolution 2D NMR of Disordered Proteins Enhanced by Hyperpolarized Water

Anal. Chem., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/acs.analchem.8b00585
Ancient Chemistry “Pharaoh’s Snakes” for Efficient Fe-/N-Doped Carbon Electrocatalysts

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/acsami.7b16936
Hydride Conformers of the Nitrogenase FeMo-cofactor Two-Electron Reduced State E2(2H), Assigned Using Cryogenic Intra Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Cavity Photolysis

Inorg. Chem., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/acs.inorgchem.8b00271
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Improving a Plastic-Degrading Enzyme for Better PET Recycling

Stabilizing a bacterial enzyme by strategically decorating it with sugars could help it to recycle one of the most widely used plastics and ultimately keep that plastic out of the landfill.

Soda, water, and shampoo bottles made from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) are typically recycled by grinding them into small flakes, which are then used to make products such as plastic containers, carpet, industrial strapping, and construction materials. But some of these products cannot be recycled again and eventually end up in landfills or the environment. By using enzymes to break PET into ethylene glycol and terephthalic acid, recyclers could use the recovered ingredients to make new plastic bottles of the same quality. Such a process would allow the material to be repeatedly recycled, helping to solve the growing problem of plastic trash.

Bacteria that cause plant diseases use an enzyme called cutinase to destroy polyester linkages in the tough outer coating of plants. In previous studies, researchers discovered that cutinase can also digest PET and break it down into its monomeric ingredients. Cutinases degrade PET most effectively at around 75 °C, a temperature at which PET chains loosen and have some wiggle room. The extra space around the chains makes it easier for cutinase to attach to the material. But the enzyme doesn’t work long at these temperatures because it begins to unfold and clump with itself.

Richard A. Gross of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and his colleagues wanted to prevent a bacterial cutinase from forming these inactive clumps. They decided to decorate it in strategic positions with sugars, which keeps the enzyme folded at elevated temperatures and creates physical barriers that make it harder for the enzyme to stick to itself.

Although bacteria do not naturally decorate their proteins with sugars like eukaryotic cells do, the researchers noticed three sites on the cutinase where eukaryotic cells might add a short string of sugars. They then genetically engineered yeast, a eukaryote, to produce a bacterial cutinase originally isolated from microbes found in leaf and branch compost. After producing the cutinase, the cells naturally glycosylated the enzyme at the predicted sites. The researchers purified the glycosylated cutinase and measured its tendency to aggregate by tracking light scattered through a solution of the enzyme at various temperatures.

The glycosylated cutinase began to aggregate and scatter light at temperatures around 80 °C, whereas the nonglycosylated enzyme scattered much more light starting at 70 °C, even forming visible clumps in some tests. The glycosylated cutinase, working at its optimal temperature and concentration, degraded more PET than the nonglycosylated protein.

The improved stability and activity of the glycosylated cutinase is a big step toward optimizing the enzyme to be useful commercially, Gross says.

“This technology could help make one of the most widely used plastics more degradable,” says Lucia Gardossi of the University of Trieste, who uses enzymes to make renewable plastics.

China once processed about half of the world’s plastic and paper trash for recycling. But last year, the country banned imports of 24 types of solid waste, leaving countries looking for solutions to accumulating piles of plastic. “The problem of plastic trash is so urgent, and the development of solutions for managing plastics so fast, that I’m positive enzymes like this will find practical applications in a short time,” Gardossi says.

This article is reproduced with permission from C&EN (© American Chemical Society). The article was first published on February 28, 2018.

Kirigami Cuts Create Strong But Removable Adhesive

Borrowing a page from the Japanese paper-cutting art of kirigami, researchers have made tape that is 10 times as sticky as uncut tape but is also easy to pull free and then reuse. The reversible adhesive could be used to make wall-climbing robots, wearable tattoolike sensors, and bandages that come off without making you wince.

Kirigami has recently gained the attention of engineers and materials scientists as a tool for designing unusual devices and materials. The technique can be used to create airy, interconnected geometrical structures that are mechanically strong. Researchers have used the paper-cutting technique to make stretchable batteries and conductors; solar panels with movable, sun-tracking solar cells; and complex three-dimensional structures that pop up from flat sheets.

Michael D. Bartlett and his colleagues at Iowa State University of Science & Technology wanted to apply kirigami concepts to control adhesion. They found that putting cleverly designed cuts in a clingy film make it stick strongly but release easily when pulled in a specific direction. “It’s counterintuitive,” Bartlett says. “You would think cutting the tape would make it less adhesive, but well-designed cuts let you enhance and precisely control adhesion. The kirigami structures influence how much force you need to apply to remove the material.”

Others have made strong, reversibly adhesive tape that uses van der Waals forces to stick to surfaces—inspired by the microstructures on the bristles that cover gecko toe pads. But making those 3-D structures requires complex procedures and equipment. The new approach also relies on van der Waal’s forces for its stickiness but uses simple sheets of plastic film and fast laser cutting.

Bartlett and his colleagues sandwiched a 0.75-mm-thick polyethylene film between flexible polydimethylsiloxane sheets. Then they laser-cut it with a simple pattern consisting of two columns of periodic rectangles running the length of the tape like windows.

By carefully experimenting with the spacing and dimensions of the rectangular cuts and the areas of tape around them, the researchers fine-tuned the sheet’s reversible stickiness. They got the strongest adhesion when the tape had thick divisions between the tops and bottoms of the windows and thinner divisions along the edges of the tape and between the two rectangular columns.

Bartlett explains that as you bend and peel off the strip, the tape requires greater force to remove whenever the bent part moves from an open region to the stiffer tape, compared with the force needed to peel off an uncut, solid region. Along the tape’s length, these recurring transitions boost the stickiness. That’s not the case along its width; in that direction, the tape is removed more easily than one that’s uncut. This provides a new way to both enhance and reduce stickiness in a single adhesive. By adding a tacky glue layer like the ones found on Scotch tape or medical tape, the kirigami-inspired tape would in theory be stronger than those products, Bartlett says.

As a demonstration, they mounted their tape on a volunteer’s arm. When tugged along its length, it needs 10 times as much force to detach as a plain, uncut tape. But when peeled across its width, it lifts off easily. The team now wants to study these effects at smaller dimensions, with different shapes, and with shapes that aren’t linearly arranged to see how that would change adhesion.

The use of kirigami to make tunable adhesives is novel, says Douglas P. Holmes, professor of mechanical engineering at Boston University. “The advantage with this approach is that instead of tuning material properties, engineers can simply tune the geometry of existing materials,” he says. Additional work will be needed to understand the stresses around the edges of the kirigami cuts, he adds.

This article is reproduced with permission from C&EN (© American Chemical Society). The article was first published on February 22, 2018.

5 Assumptions You Need to Drop Before a Job Search

Over the past several years, I’ve had the genuine pleasure of speaking with students and researchers about their careers. They look for advice and inspiration for about carving out their career path. These students and researchers carry an infectious enthusiasm, a real passion for what they do. But there is a problem.

The more students I talk to, the clearer it becomes that they all harbor common misconceptions about what career opportunities they can and cannot apply for. There are assumptions in the way they think- the way a lot of us think- that place avoidable hurdle on the track to success. Whether it’s someone’s first degree, a Ph.D., or advanced postdoctoral position, the questions remain the same:

Where will my career go? What job might I choose? What sort of scientist will I be? How will people react? Is there a correct decision? Will I love my choice? Will I regret it forever?

Though we live in exciting times, uncertainty is everywhere. It is understandable that students and researchers ask so many questions. Many job families, particularly in academic circles, never start out as permanent, and often persist in the ethereal limbo of short-term contracts. Many aspiring scientists graduating today will eventually work in and create jobs that don’t event exist yet.

Whether you want to stay in academia, head to industry, or leave behind research altogether, my message to everyone everywhere searching for new opportunities is this:

Challenge Every Assumption You Make About Yourself

Assumption 1: I’ve only published X papers, so I probably don’t have enough in my résumé to apply for the job.

Challenge: Some people have NO papers and apply for the job anyway. Why? While buried in the publish or perish mindset, you have assumed every employer needs to see papers. You have also assumed that even when an employer would like to see papers, they can’t contextualize your current working environment. Employers are clever people. If you have an article in preparation or submitted, say so. If you worked in a legally or entrepreneurially sensitive topic on which papers cannot be written, say so. There are many ways to stand out from the other (often numerous) résumés on an employer’s desk. Have you considered phoning up to chat about the post ahead of clicking ‘Submit’? Rethink your assumption before discounting yourself from the competition.

Assumption 2: I don’t really work in that field. I won’t know enough to apply for the job.

Challenge: How did you train for the discipline you are currently working in? You worked hard, you tried, you failed, you tried again, and you learned. It is rare that your degree or research position will teach you everything you need to know about a new job. What matters is your capacity to learn, not what you have already learned. Be adaptable.

Assumption 3: What if I want to explore a career outside of my degree? I feel like what I’ve learned is too specific.

Challenge: Business practitioners say that training in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) provides valuable critical and creative thinking skills, which are useful in many career spaces beyond STEM itself. In a recent interview with Freakonomics Radio, PepsiCo CEO Indra Nooyi explained how she views the potential of scientists:

“If you are trained as a scientist in your youth…if you stay with the STEM disciplines…your scientific disciplines play a very important role and ground you very well as you move into positions of higher and higher authority, whatever the job is. [In your youth] stay with STEM as long as you can!”

You may have heard advice along the lines of “you are NOT your degree.” I prefer to say that “You are your degree…and then some!”.

Assumption 4: It’s OK for that person; they have experience X, Y, and Z. I don’t have any of that.

Challenge: One of the most common forms of intellectual neurosis is the urge to compare yourself to other people. Such thought processes are understandable and often unavoidable, but they need to be managed. Ask yourself: What would happen if you could convert the time you wasted worrying and procrastinating into effort toward that job application? Stop focussing on other people and concentrate on what you can bring to the party.

Assumption 5: Some people make it sound like it’s very easy and building a career is one smooth and straight line. Is it?

Challenge: No. Heck no. You need to make and take opportunities. Never wait. Rejection is certain. You have to learn to use every instance of rejection as feedback to fight again. If anyone infers that the road to the career you are happy in is a smooth one, they are lying. The next time you have the thought that a certain successful person you see or chat to has it all figured out, question why that might be? What were the circumstances in which they found success? How did they achieve what you see before you? When you start to break down someone’s road to success, you start to see that success is very rarely plain sailing.

This article might sound like I have it all figured out. I do not. I have struggled and will continue to struggle with my own career assumptions, but I hope these observations can help you question your own assumptions on the road to where you want to be.

If nothing else remember this: Trying and failing are infinitely more manageable than the regret of never having tried at all.

Marc Reid is a physical organic chemist based in Glasgow, Scotland. He completed his MSc in Chemistry at the University of Strathclyde in 2011. In 2015, he completed his Carnegie Trust-sponsored Ph.D. in Chemistry from the same institution. From 2015-16, Reid was a postdoctoral research associate at the University of Edinburgh. During that time, he was inducted into the SciFinder Future Leaders in Chemistry programme. Most recently, Reid won the prestigious Leverhulme Trust Early Career Fellowship and re-joined the Dept. of Pure & Applied Chemistry at Strathclyde to take up his first independent position. Reid’s current post is supported by GlaxoSmithKline, and he is thus the first Strathclyde-GSK Early Career Academic.

You can follow him on Twitter: @reid_indeed

Oil and Gas Wastewater Leaves Radium in Pennsylvania Stream Sediments

Despite a 2011 Pennsylvania guideline curbing the discharge of wastewater from the hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, industry to water treatment plants, high levels of radium are still settling in some of the state’s stream sediments, according to a new study. The results suggest that some treatment plants that process wastewater derived from conventional oil and gas production are releasing this carcinogenic radionuclide. In some sediment samples, the radium activity reached 25,000 becquerels/kg, about 14 times as great as the threshold at which some states require solid radioactive waste to be disposed of in a licensed facility.

During both fracking and conventional oil and gas production, saline water enriched in naturally occurring radionuclides is extracted from rock formations and flows to the surface as wastewater. In Texas, Oklahoma, and many other oil and gas producing regions, operators dispose of this wastewater by injecting it into deep wells. But in Pennsylvania, where the Marcellus Shale formation has supported a fracking boom, the underlying geology precludes deep well injection, says Duke University geochemist Avner Vengosh.

As a result, some of this wastewater in Pennsylvania has been shuttled to treatment plants to remove contaminants and then released into local streams. Because of public concerns about high levels of bromide in fracking wastewater, which can be transformed into harmful disinfection by-products such as trihalomethanes during wastewater treatment, the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection asked fracking operators to stop sending wastewater to these facilities in 2011, and they have reportedly complied. But this request does not cover conventional oil and gas producers, who still send wastewater for treatment and release into some streams in the state.

Vengosh and his colleagues suspected that this source would also contaminate stream sediments with radium. So, from 2014 to 2017, they tested for it at three sites where streams receive this treated wastewater.

Near outflow pipes from the treatment plants, the researchers measured up to 650 times as much radium in the stream sediments as in sediments upstream. The overall levels of radioactivity in these sediments was similar to those the group previously found in sediments where fracking wastewater was being released, Vengosh says.

To determine the source of the radium, the researchers took advantage of the chemical difference between wastewater produced by fracking and that produced by conventional oil and gas production. The predominant radionuclide in wastewater from fracked, uranium-rich shale is 226Ra, whereas in sandstone and similar formations that are drilled conventionally, there are relatively equal amounts of 226Ra and 228Ra. The ratio of 228Ra/226Ra in the sediment samples indicates that the majority of the radium originates from wastewater from conventional oil and gas production, according to Vengosh.

The different half-lives of these isotopes and their daughter isotopes in the two types of wastewaters also help the researchers determine approximately how long the radionuclides have been in stream sediments. For example, 228Ra in conventionally drilled oil and gas formations eventually decays to 228Th. The 228Th/228Ra ratios in sediments suggest that the majority of the radium accumulated in the past three years, since fracking waste disposal in these streams is said to have ended.

Vengosh calls the levels of radium in the sediments “mind-blowing,” and found this especially surprising because wastewater treatment reduces radium levels by about 98%. The study suggests that even low concentrations of radioactivity in large volumes of treated water can generate a huge amount of radioactivity in sediments, he says.

Since the treatment and release of conventional oil and gas wastewater likely leads to this contamination, this practice should also be stopped, Vengosh says. Fracking wastewater is currently reused in fracking, or transported outside the state for deep well injection.

This contamination could spread beyond the stream sediments. Creatures living in streambeds can ingest the radium, and it can bioaccumulate, eventually showing up in fish. Wastewater from conventional oil and gas production, with its high salt content, is also sold as a road deicer in both Pennsylvania and New York.

Nicole Fahrenfeld, an environmental engineer at Rutgers University, calls the results interesting. She says the research raises questions about the fate of harmful constituents in these wastewaters—such as how far downstream elevated levels of radium persist, and whether sticking to sediments slows the spread.

These high levels of radium in sediments could come from infrequent pulses of wastewater with higher concentrations of radium, the authors note in the paper. Determining whether radium is slowly leaching into streams versus traveling in spurts will be important, Fahrenfeld notes. Engineers could use those insights to design more effective wastewater treatment technologies, she says.

This article is reproduced with permission from C&EN (© American Chemical Society). The article was first published on February 6, 2018.

New ACS eBook Focuses on Nanocelluloses

Nanocellulose is a trending topic for many research laboratories because of its commercial value and range of applications. Researchers are seeking novel ways of using different types of nanocelluloses to produce commercially viable products.

Because nanocelluloses are produced from the most abundant naturally occurring homo-polymer, there seem to be limitless opportunities for sourcing and applications. The challenge, however, is that the native celluloses from different plant sources are distinct, so different protocols are appropriate for nanocelluloses from different sources.

In the recently published ACS ebook, Nanocelluloses: Their Preparation, Properties and Applications, readers will find in-depth discussions on various types of nanocelluloses among the pioneering investigators in this field. The collection provides an overview of opportunities and challenges in cellulose science, as well as some of the ground-breaking research projects that are taking place in academic, industrial, and national laboratories.

Read the first chapter of The Nanostructures of Native Celluloses, Their Transformations upon Isolation, and Their Implications for Production of Nanocelluloses for free .

Who will find this book useful?

The book is engaging for a variety of research staff, especially those who are currently active in research on the production of unique nanocelluloses from different plant sources. Scientists who are interested in the basic phenomenology of cellulose, as well as in chemical derivatization of nanocelluloses, would be benefited from the book as well. This book is a valuable tool for those interested in nanophenomena particularly in the context of biomass.

Where can the discussions in the book be best applied?

There are a few areas of application discussed in the book, including the production of composites wherein the inclusion of nanocelluloses can provide significant reinforcement; and the inclusion of nanofibrils of cellulose in various fluid media, which results in unique modifications of the properties of the fluids.

About the Book’s Editors

Umesh P. Agarwal

Umesh P. Agarwal is a Fellow of the International Academy of Wood Science and is currently employed as a senior scientist at the Forest Products Laboratory, USDA Forest Service, Madison WI. In 1979, he received his Ph.D. in Chemistry from the Indian Institute of Technology (Kanpur, India). Subsequently, as a postdoctoral fellow, he carried out research at various institutions in England, Germany, and the United States. His current research activities are in the areas of cellulose nanomaterials, supramolecular structure and crystallinity of cellulose, ultrastructure of wood cell walls, and development of Raman spectroscopy to investigate cellulose and lignocellulose materials. He has published ~ 100 papers in peer-reviewed journals, written several book chapters, and made significant contributions at national and international conferences/meetings.

Rajai H. Atalla

Rajai H. Atalla received a Ph.D. from the University of Delaware in Chemical Engineering and Chemical Physics. He has served as Professor of Engineering and Chemical Physics at the Institute of Paper Chemistry in Appleton, Wisconsin. In 1989, he became Head of Chemistry and Pulping Research at the Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) in Madison, Wisconsin and Adjunct Professor of Chemical Engineering at the University of Wisconsin. He pioneered the application of Raman spectroscopy and SS 13C NMR to an investigation of celluloses leading to the discovery of the Iα and Iβ forms of native celluloses. He has served as a consultant to many companies and government agencies in the forest products and cellulosic sectors. He has well more than 250 peer-reviewed publications, book chapters, and patents. He has also had the good fortune of having the two co-editors as collaborators for many decades.

Akira Isogai

Akira Isogai graduated from The University of Tokyo in 1980 and received his Ph.D. from its Graduate School of Agriculture in 1985. After a year as a Postdoctoral fellow the Institute of Paper Chemistry, he was appointed Assistant Professor at The University of Tokyo. In 2003 he became Professor in the Department of Biomaterial Sciences at The University of Tokyo. He pioneered the study of nanocelluloses and their TEMPO oxidation beginning in 1995 and is the leading contributor in the field, which is reflected in more than 500 publications and 130 patents. He is president of The Cellulose Society of Japan, a vice president of Japan Nanocellulose Forum, a board member of Japan TAPPI and other academic societies, an Associate Editor of Cellulose (Springer), and a member of the Advisory Editorial Board of Biomacromolecules (ACS) and other scientific journals.

Cynthia J. Burrows Receives 2018 Willard Gibbs Medal and James Flack Norris Award

ACS Publications and the staff of Accounts of Chemical Research would like to congratulate the journal’s Editor-in-Chief, Professor Cynthia J. Burrows of the University of Utah, on winning two prestigious awards: the Willard Gibbs Medal and the James Flack Norris Award in Physical Organic Chemistry.

The Willard Gibbs Medal, one of the most prestigious honors in chemistry, “recognizes eminent chemists who have brought to the world developments that enable everyone to live more comfortably and to understand this world better.” A national jury of eminent chemists representing multiple disciplines selected Cindy for the award for her work and contributions to pure or applied chemistry. Burrows is the first University of Utah chemist to win this award since Henry Eyring in 1968.

The James Flack Norris Award, sponsored by the ACS Northeastern Section, is given for outstanding achievement in the teaching of chemistry and recognizes Burrows’ “wide-ranging effect on chemical education.” Specifically, the award honors her studies illuminating the mechanistic pathways of oxidation of guanine and its derivatives to further the collective understanding of DNA damage and repair.

When asked about the future of the field, Burrows said, “Physical organic chemistry in 2018 is not so much a focused discipline as it is a way of thinking about structure and mechanisms pertaining to carbon-containing molecules. In the 20th century, physical organic chemistry was about reactive intermediates-carbocations, carbenes, radicals. Now it spans materials, devices, catalysis, and biological mechanisms. I’m happy to be a part of this field, grounded in fundamental studies but with ultimately very broad implications.”

Burrows is the Thatcher Presidential Endowed Chair of Biological Chemistry at the University of Utah, where her research includes both organic and biological chemistry, with a focus on chemical modifications of DNA and RNA bases. Her past honors include the ACS Cope Scholar Award.

To learn more about Cynthia J. Burrows and her work with Accounts of Chemical Research, read her editor profile.

Exploring the Frontiers of 4D Printing

A new printer could change manufacturing by creating self-assembling structures that can change shape after being exposed to heat and other stimuli. Dubbed “4D Printing” — the extra “d” refers to the time of self-assembly — this technology could have significant aerospace, medicine, and other industries. It could, for example, one day allow manufacturers to produce electronic devices and their wiring in a single process.

In this video, H. Jerry Qi, Ph.D., of the Georgia Institute of Technology, discusses this technology at the 255th ACS National Meeting & Exposition in New Orleans. He explains recent breakthroughs in the field and discusses some of the technology’s potential applications.

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ACS Editors’ Choice: Converting Waste Papers to Fluorescent Carbon Dots

This week: Converting waste papers to fluorescent carbon dots, damage-responsive microcapsules, Highly elastic biodegradable single-network hydrogel for cell printing — and more!

Each and every day, ACS grants free access to a new peer-reviewed research article from one of the Society’s journals. These articles are specially chosen by a team of scientific editors of ACS journals from around the world to highlight the transformative power of chemistry. Access to these articles will remain open to all as a public service.

Check out this week’s picks!
Quantitative Profiling of Protein Carbonylations in Ferroptosis by an Aniline-Derived Probe

J. Am. Chem. Soc., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/jacs.8b01462ACS
Damage-Responsive Microcapsules for Amplified Photoacoustic Detection of Microcracks in Polymers

Chem. Mater., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemmater.8b00457
Ozonation of Para-Substituted Phenolic Compounds Yields p-Benzoquinones, Other Cyclic α,β-Unsaturated Ketones, and Substituted Catechols

Environ. Sci. Technol., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.8b00011
A General Synthetic Route to Polycyclic Aromatic Dicarboximides by Palladium-Catalyzed Annulation Reaction

J. Org. Chem., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/acs.joc.8b00301
Structure from Dynamics: Vibrational Dynamics of Interfacial Water as a Probe of Aqueous Heterogeneity

J. Phys. Chem. B, Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcb.7b10574
Converting Waste Papers to Fluorescent Carbon Dots in the Recycling Process without Loss of Ionic Liquids and Bioimaging Applications

ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/acssuschemeng.8b00353
Highly Elastic Biodegradable Single-Network Hydrogel for Cell Printing

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/acsami.8b01294
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