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10 Chemistry Articles Everyone Was Reading in November 2022

There are many ways to measure an article’s success after it is published. One helpful method of evaluating a scientific publication’s reach and influence is by looking at how many times it has been read. Below, we have gathered a selection of recently published chemistry articles that were among the most read in November 2022 across all ACS Publications journals.*  

Topics in this month’s collection include Alzheimer’s prevention, catalysis, molecular cloning, and more. We hope you find this content informative and useful. If you are interested in publishing in an ACS journal, click below to learn more about how your research can further our commitment to being the “Most Trusted. Most Cited. Most Read.” 

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Photoelectrochemical Asymmetric Catalysis Enables Direct and Enantioselective Decarboxylative Cyanation

Photoelectrochemical Asymmetric Catalysis Enables Direct and Enantioselective Decarboxylative Cyanation 
Xiao-Li Lai, Ming Chen, Yuqi Wang, Jinshuai Song, and Hai-Chao Xu
DOI: 10.1021/jacs.2c09050

 

Alzheimer’s Disease Prevention through Natural Compounds: Cell-Free, In Vitro, and In Vivo Dissection of Hop (Humulus lupulus L.) Multitarget Activity

Alzheimer’s Disease Prevention through Natural Compounds: Cell-Free, In Vitro, and In Vivo Dissection of Hop (Humulus lupulus L.) Multitarget Activity
Alessandro Palmioli, Valeria Mazzoni, Ada De Luigi, Chiara Bruzzone, Gessica Sala, Laura Colombo, Chiara Bazzini, Chiara Paola Zoia, Mariagiovanna Inserra, Mario Salmona, Ivano De Noni, Carlo Ferrarese, Luisa Diomede, and Cristina Airoldi
DOI: 10.1021/acschemneuro.2c00444

 

Nickel Catalysis via SH2 Homolytic Substitution: The Double Decarboxylative Cross-Coupling of Aliphatic Acids

Nickel Catalysis via SH2 Homolytic Substitution: The Double Decarboxylative Cross-Coupling of Aliphatic Acids
Artem V. Tsymbal, Lorenzo Delarue Bizzini, and David W. C. MacMillan
DOI: 10.1021/jacs.2c08989

 

A User’s Guide to Golden Gate Cloning Methods and Standards

A User’s Guide to Golden Gate Cloning Methods and Standards
Jasmine E. Bird, Jon Marles-Wright, and Andrea Giachino
DOI: 10.1021/acssynbio.2c00355

 

Ligand-Enabled Pd(II)-Catalyzed β-Methylene C(sp3)–H Arylation of Free Aliphatic Acids

Ligand-Enabled Pd(II)-Catalyzed β-Methylene C(sp3)–H Arylation of Free Aliphatic Acids
Liang Hu, Guangrong Meng, and Jin-Quan Yu
DOI: 10.1021/jacs.2c09205

 
High-Performance Transparent Radiative Cooler Designed by Quantum Computing

High-Performance Transparent Radiative Cooler Designed by Quantum Computing
Seongmin Kim, Wenjie Shang, Seunghyun Moon, Trevor Pastega, Eungkyu Lee, and Tengfei Luo
DOI: 10.1021/acsenergylett.2c01969

 

Excited-State Copper-Catalyzed [4 + 1] Annulation Reaction Enables Modular Synthesis of α,β-Unsaturated-γ-Lactams

Excited-State Copper-Catalyzed [4 + 1] Annulation Reaction Enables Modular Synthesis of α,β-Unsaturated-γ-Lactams
Satavisha Sarkar, Arghya Banerjee, Jagrut A. Shah, Upasana Mukherjee, Nicoline C. Frederiks, Christopher J. Johnson, and Ming-Yu Ngai
DOI: 10.1021/jacs.2c09006

 

Lipid Nanoparticles─From Liposomes to mRNA Vaccine Delivery, a Landscape of Research Diversity and Advancement

Lipid Nanoparticles─From Liposomes to mRNA Vaccine Delivery, a Landscape of Research Diversity and Advancement
Rumiana Tenchov, Robert Bird, Allison E. Curtze, and Qiongqiong Zhou
DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.1c04996

 

Synthesis of Stereoenriched Piperidines via Chemo-Enzymatic Dearomatization of Activated Pyridines

Synthesis of Stereoenriched Piperidines via Chemo-Enzymatic Dearomatization of Activated Pyridines
Vanessa Harawa, Thomas W. Thorpe, James R. Marshall, Jack J. Sangster, Amelia K. Gilio, Lucian Pirvu, Rachel S. Heath, Antonio Angelastro, James D. Finnigan, Simon J. Charnock, Jordan W. Nafie, Gideon Grogan, Roger C. Whitehead, and Nicholas J. Turner
DOI: 10.1021/jacs.2c07143

 

General Synthetic Approach to Diverse Taxane Cores

General Synthetic Approach to Diverse Taxane Cores
Melecio A. Perea, Brian Wang, Benjamin C. Wyler, Jin Su Ham, Nicholas R. O’Connor, Shota Nagasawa, Yuto Kimura, Carolin Manske, Maximilian Scherübl, Johny M. Nguyen, and Richmond Sarpong
DOI: 10.1021/jacs.2c10272


*This list was not chosen by the journals’ editors and should not be taken as a “best of” list, but as another perspective on where the chemistry community is recently allocating their attention.

Pairing Up for the Party Season: The Chemistry Behind the Perfect Food and Wine Pairings

The party season is approaching, and once again chemists have offered the world a gift: the science behind the perfect food and wine pairings. For those who would like to progress beyond “red with steak” and “white with fish,”  there is now peer-reviewed research that may help inform a nuanced and elegant choice for every meal.

Whether you are a seasoned connoisseur or an enthusiastic amateur, you are likely well aware that the taste of wine can differ depending on the types of foods you consume with it. Despite an abundance of food pairing hypotheses over the years, there has traditionally been no supporting evidence or studies to examine the rationale, and many remained skeptical that there would be any scientific basis to support individual sensory experiences or preferences.

But just in time for your holiday menu planning, recent research has revealed some of the underlying chemistry behind why some wines and foods (cheese, anyone?) seem to be made for each other—and why some pairings may not work as harmoniously as others.1

The Tannin Tamer: How Lipids Work to Balance Bitterness

Wine, along with many other food products, contains both volatile and non-volatile compounds. Volatile compounds such as thiols contribute to a wine’s aroma, but it is the non-volatile substances that are responsible for taste and mouthfeel. These compounds may be affected by components such as alcohol, sugar, acid, polysaccharides, nucleic acids, and—most notably—phenolic compounds such as tannins, which are commonly associated with the bitterness, astringency, and complexity of red wine.2,3

Many flavor precursors can also derive from other ingredients such as yeasts, as well as containers and vessels—for example, traditional oak barrels.4 However, there is one previously overlooked chemical component that could hold the key to understanding more subtle aspects of wine flavor: lipids.

To further understand the interaction between lipids and wine tannins—and potentially uncover why wine and cheese go so well together—researchers from the University of Bordeaux (in the famous wine region of France) conducted a twofold approach using both biophysical methods and sensory analysis.1

First, they observed the behavior of lipids in an oil–water emulsion after mixing in catechin, a primary component of grape tannins. This resulted in the lipid droplets absorbing the catechin at the membrane surface, increasing in size and producing a “creaming” effect in the upper phase of the emulsion.

These molecular findings were reinforced by the sensory analysis which demonstrated that certain dietary oils, such as grapeseed oil, decreased or even eliminated perceived tannin astringency, while others like olive oil made the wine taste fruity instead of bitter.

This study further validates lipids—such as the fats in cheese, meat, and other charcuterie board favorites—as crucial molecular agents that can both soften the bitter taste of wine and enhance its flavor profile by attracting tannins to their surfaces (and away from your bitter taste receptors).

Lipids are also naturally present within wine itself, although in very low concentrations. A team at Oregon State University (also in a prominent wine region of the U.S.) examined how lipids in wine contribute to taste and mouthfeel by adding various food-grade lipids to a model wine solution. Of the lipids tested, phospholipids most noticeably contributed to an increase in perceived viscosity while also masking bitterness.5

Further research in this area is needed to better understand the full range of effects of lipids on taste and mouthfeel—but there is great potential for winemakers to one day successfully alter lipid composition during the processing phase, yielding wines that are naturally less bitter and more appealing to consumers who desire softer, more mellow flavors.

Red vs. White: Ironing Out the Differences 

So, is there a scientific basis for the original red/white divide when it comes to seafood? Well, possibly. It turns out red wine has more ferrous (iron(II)-containing) ions compared to white wine, as a function of the materials used in the processing. Controlled experiments showed that wines higher in iron can promote lipid oxidation of the unsaturated fatty acids found in fish and seafood, generating an unpleasant associated retronasal smell.

Although iron vessels are less often used in modern processes for red wine, there is no easy way to gauge a wine’s iron content without tasting it first. There are numerous factors beyond wine type that can influence iron content—from soil composition to fermentation processes—making it tricky for a consumer to identify any potential unsavory food pairings just by looking at the label alone.6

But iron-heavy red wines aren’t the only culprit when it comes to unpleasant taste perceptions associated with seafood pairings. Researchers in Japan demonstrated that white wines containing sulfur dioxide (SO2), a sulfite commonly used for wine preservation, resulted in an “off-odor” and undesirable taste when paired with seafood containing high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids.7

After adding DHA—a polyunsaturated fat present in seafoods such as dried squid and mackerel—to various white wine and sake samples, the team observed accelerated rates of DHA oxidation in the SO2-heavy wines, resulting in a malodorous smell and taste.

The scientists speculate that the widely followed “white wine with fish” tradition may be more accurately applied to seafood pairings such as whitefish, shrimp, crab, and other options that contain lower levels of these fatty acids. Even so, it is now easier than ever to find sulfite-free wines—which, in addition to those with sulfite sensitivities, may be a preferred option for consumers who want to ensure a delicious white wine pairing regardless of fish or seafood choice.

A Matter of Taste

Understanding the science behind wine’s interaction with various compounds on a molecular level can help to better inform many components of wine culture, from perfect food pairings at your next holiday gathering to modifications in grape cultivation and processing. But as the sensory analyses in these studies show, everyone has different preferences and perceptions when it comes to flavor, taste, and mouthfeel—and wine is no exception. Ultimately, if it tastes good to you, go with it. Cheers!

Read More Articles About the Chemistry of Wine from ACS Journals

  1. Gambetta, J. et al. Factors Influencing the Aroma Composition of Chardonnay Wines. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2014, 62, 28, 6512–6534
  2. Begum, P. et al. Development of an Electrochemical Sensing System for Wine Component Analysis. ACS Food Sci. Technol. 2021, 1, 11, 2030–2040
  3. Maioli, F. et al. Monitoring of Sangiovese Red Wine Chemical and Sensory Parameters along One-Year Aging in Different Tank Materials and Glass Bottle. ACS Food Sci. Technol. 2022, 2, 2, 221–239
  4. Hofmann, T. and Hufnagel, J. C. Quantitative Reconstruction of the Nonvolatile Sensometabolome of a Red Wine. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2008, 56, 4, 1376–1386
  5. Li, S. et al. Use of Winemaking Supplements To Modify the Composition and Sensory Properties of Shiraz Wine. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2017, 65, 7, 1353–1364

References

  1. Saad, A. et al. New Insights into Wine Taste: Impact of Dietary Lipids on Sensory Perceptions of Grape Tannins. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2021, 69, 10, 3165–3174
  2. Hufnagel, J. C. and Hofmann, T. Orosensory-Directed Identification of Astringent Mouthfeel and Bitter-Tasting Compounds in Red Wine. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2008, 56, 4, 1376–1386
  3. Jackson, R. S. Wine Tasting: A Professional Handbook. Academic Press 2017.
  4. Parker, M. et al. Aroma Precursors in Grapes and Wine: Flavor Release during Wine Production and Consumption. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2018, 66, 10, 2281–2286
  5. Phan, Q. et al. Contribution of Lipids to Taste and Mouthfeel Perception in a Model Wine Solution. ACS Food Sci. Technol. 2021, 1, 9, 1561–1566
  6. Tamura, T. et al. Iron Is an Essential Cause of Fishy Aftertaste Formation in Wine and Seafood Pairing. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2009, 57, 18, 8550–8556
  7. Fujita, A. et al. Effects of Sulfur Dioxide on Formation of Fishy Off-Odor and Undesirable Taste in Wine Consumed with Seafood. J. Agric. Food Chem.2010, 58, 7, 4414–4420

Greener Methods for Cleaner Water

Water, water everywhere…but is it clean enough to drink? For more than one-third of the world’s population, the answer is no.1 Access to clean drinking water is currently one of the most challenging global issues, exacerbated by climate change, increasing water scarcity, population growth, demographic changes, and continued urbanization. But scientists are now harnessing the power of the sun to effectively and sustainably turn salty ocean water into a clean, drinkable resource. 

Advances in Solar-Powered Desalination Technology

A Paper-Based Answer to Salt Accumulation

While the majority of the earth’s surface is covered by water, more than 97% is found in the oceans and cannot be consumed due to its high salinity. But chemists have been working to address the global water crisis by developing more efficient and environmentally sustainable seawater desalination techniques.

Solar-powered desalination is steadily becoming a leading force in battling global water scarcity, and there is a strong drive to advance solar desalination methods for more widespread applications in sustainable clean water production. Most traditional solar evaporation systems operate using thermal conduction, but the biggest challenge for these evaporators is excessive salt accumulation on the absorption layer, which hinders evaporation efficiency and makes the devices difficult to clean and maintain.

However, research recently published in ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces demonstrates a novel solution in the form of a paper-based thermal radiation-enabled evaporation system (TREES).2 This system uses a contactless configuration consisting of a vertical evaporation wall made of filter paper, which surrounds a thermally insulated bottom solar absorber constructed from surface-inked wood and polystyrene foam.

The evaporation wall can efficiently capture thermal energy from the solar absorber while also gaining energy from the warmer environment, enhancing the evaporation process. The wall is also unique in its ability to efficiently collect the salt on its exterior and, through energy down-conversion, enable water to serve as its own absorber and create a dynamic evaporation front from the accumulated salt layer. Furthermore, since the TREES system is contactless, the salt layer does not accumulate on the bottom absorber surface.

After testing the TREES system outdoors for eight consecutive days, the researchers reported that it can enhance evaporation by more than 1000% compared to traditional systems. By overcoming the salt accumulation challenge and improving the evaporation process, TREES exhibits tremendous potential as a driver of next-generation desalination technology. Watch a video of TREES in action.

Doing Double Duty with Hydrogel

Another desalination approach published in ACS ES&T Water uses a hydrogel platform to produce fresh water from both the ocean and the atmosphere.3 Salt accumulation presents a challenge here as well—hydrogel-based solar steam generators currently used for seawater desalination are easily clogged and dirtied by excess salt deposits.

Despite their obstructive nature, researchers observed that these salts could be quite useful for absorbing water from the atmosphere, and they worked to develop a versatile solar-thermal hydrogel (TA-Fe@PAM) that could integrate oceanic desalination and atmospheric water collection within a singular device.

The team constructed the TA-Fe@PAM hydrogel by embedding a tannin-iron (TA-Fe) photothermal complex into a polyacrylamide (PAM) hydrogel system. The hydrogel’s porous nature allowed for efficient photothermal conversion and water transport while effectively trapping large amounts of deliquescent salts during rapid solar desalination. The hydrogel containing the incorporated salts (DS-TA-Fe@PAM) was then dried and tested for atmospheric water collection performance. The DS-TA-Fe@PAM hydrogel was able to successfully capture atmospheric water vapor and then release almost all of the water it had collected.

Finally, the team tested DS-TA-Fe@PAM within a device made from cheap, easy-to-assemble household materials, and it again demonstrated efficient water harvesting and release. This is especially promising for use in developing countries and low-resource settings where it is difficult to regularly access clean water.

Taken together, these new findings provide novel insights into the design of next-generation salt-harvesting solar evaporators and take a step further to advance their applications in sustainable desalination.

Explore Related Research on Desalination from ACS Journals

  1. Zhang, C. et al. Dual-Layer Multichannel Hydrogel Evaporator with High Salt Resistance and a Hemispherical Structure toward Water Desalination and Purification. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2022, 14, 22, 26303–26313
  2. Aleid, S. et al. Salting-in Effect of Zwitterionic Polymer Hydrogel Facilitates Atmospheric Water Harvesting. ACS Materials Lett. 2022, 4, 3, 511–520
  3. Pan, Y. et al. Simple Design of a Porous Solar Evaporator for Salt-Free Desalination and Rapid Evaporation. Sci. Technol. 2022, 56, 16, 11818–11826
  4. Chu, A. et al. Sustainable Self-Cleaning Evaporators for Highly Efficient Solar Desalination Using a Highly Elastic Sponge-like Hydrogel. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2022, 14, 31, 36116–36131
  5. Wilson, H. et al. Highly Efficient and Salt-Rejecting Poly(vinyl alcohol) Hydrogels with Excellent Mechanical Strength for Solar Desalination. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2022, 14, 42, 47800–47809

References

  1. Patel, P. Improving the efficiency of solar desalination. C&EN Global Enterprise 2019, 97, 26, 8-8
  2. Bian, Y. et al. Enhanced Contactless Salt-Collecting Solar Desalination. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2022, 14, 29, 34151–34158
  3. Li, X. et al. Multipurpose Solar-Thermal Hydrogel Platform for Desalination of Seawater and Subsequent Collection of Atmospheric Water. ACS EST Water 2022, Article ASAP

Food Packaging is (Naturally) Getting Smarter

Food packaging and waste are two key issues in the race to address climate change—and they are often one and the same. But several recent studies present innovative solutions for intelligent, sustainable food packaging alternatives to petroleum-based plastics and synthetic dyes.

The food we eat has a dramatic impact on the planet. Much attention is given to the ecological consequences of mass farming, agriculture, and food production processes. But part of the challenge stems from two associated problems: increasing levels of food waste, and the ubiquitous use of plastics in food packaging. In fact, food packaging is the third largest global industry and the single-largest contributor to solid waste.1-3

Since most food packaging is either disposed of improperly or cannot be recycled at all, the damage caused by plastic debris and microplastics is also an important part of the conversation.2 Yet packaging is an essential need for many foods, preventing contamination and extending shelf life. This role in reducing food waste is crucial, since it is estimated that 17% of total global food production is wasted.3

Some argue that removing packaging altogether would result in a heavier dependence on refrigeration, which could drive the problem in a different way by further increasing energy usage and greenhouse gas emissions. So how can we address this issue without compromising hygiene and food quality?

Progress Toward Biodegradable Active Packaging

One proposed solution is through active packaging technology, which—when triggered by changes either to the product itself or to outside environmental conditions—works to release active compounds or isolate gaseous emissions within the package in order to extend freshness.1 Although the concept of active packaging has existed since the early 1900s, significant technological innovations have only begun to gain traction in recent years.

Lately, research in the field has been focusing on exclusively using biodegradable and biocompatible materials for active packaging technology. Options for natural antimicrobial biopolymers in active release packaging include corn starch, collagen, cellulose, and chitosan.1,4 Unfortunately, these biopolymers often have weaker material properties—such as mechanical strength and thermal stability—compared to conventional plastics, which must be improved upon before bio-based active packaging can be a safe, widely accepted solution.

Natural active agents, such as polyphenols from tea or essential oils from clove, marjoram, or thyme, may also be used as antimicrobials.1 Work is ongoing to ensure that the release of these active compounds from packaging can be strictly controlled in order to adhere to food safety regulations—and to ensure they do not affect the smell or taste of the food. Here, the food industry may borrow from medicine, where controlled-release drugs have become the norm in many therapeutic areas. This could mean it is possible to build a controlled-release food packaging environment where natural antimicrobials are induced by external stimuli such as heat or pH. And speaking of pH…

Giving New Meaning to Food Coloring

Another review in ACS Food Science & Technology also highlights more natural approaches to intelligent food packaging, focusing specifically on developments in pH-responsive color indicator technology.5 Color indicators on food packages have gained significant popularity in recent years, making it easier than ever for consumers to quickly assess the pH levels and freshness of foods with shorter shelf lives such as meats, dairy products, and seafood. But almost all current commercial pH indicators use synthetic dyes that could pose great health and safety risks if leaked from the packaging into the food itself.

As a solution, scientists have begun developing new color indicators made from pH-responsive natural colorants such as anthocyanins (found in produce and flowers); curcumin6 (derived from turmeric); alizarin and shikonin (root-derived); and betalains (found in beets). So far, indicators using these natural colorants have performed successfully on packaging for various animal-based food products. Despite their incredible potential, more research and testing must be conducted to further strengthen properties such as pH sensitivity and microbial marker detection before these natural colorant-based indicators make it to your local grocery store.

Many countries show signs of a desire to move towards reusable, recyclable, or compostable packaging, and the development of biodegradable packaging that can compete with plastics on a commercial level is fundamental to this revolution. To date, there have been few scalable successes in the field. But with the problems underpinning the need for sustainable and smart food packaging only growing, it is surely just a matter of time before the chemistry happening in the lab becomes mainstream.

Explore More Articles on Sustainable Food Packaging from ACS Publications

  1. Zare, M. et al. Emerging Trends for ZnO Nanoparticles and Their Applications in Food Packaging. ACS Food Sci. Technol. 2022, 2, 5, 763–781
  2. Li, F. et al. A Naturally Derived Nanocomposite Film with Photodynamic Antibacterial Activity: New Prospect for Sustainable Food Packaging. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2021, 13, 44, 52998–53008
  3. Patel, P. The time is now for edible packaging. Chemical & Engineering News 2020, 98, 4.

References

  1. Westlake, J. R. et al. Biodegradable Active Packaging with Controlled Release: Principles, Progress, and Prospects. ACS Food Sci. Technol. 2022, 2, 8, 1166–1183
  2. Zhao, X. Y. et al. Narrowing the Gap for Bioplastic Use in Food Packaging: An Update. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2020, 54, 8, 4712–4732
  3. UNEP Food Waste Index Report 2021; UNEP, 2021.
  4. Wang, H. et al. Emerging Chitosan-Based Films for Food Packaging Applications. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2018, 66, 2, 395–413
  5. Priyadarshi, R. et al. Recent Advances in Intelligent Food Packaging Applications Using Natural Food Colorants. ACS Food Sci. Technol. 2021, 1, 2, 124–138
  6. Cvek, M. et al. Biodegradable Films of PLA/PPC and Curcumin as Packaging Materials and Smart Indicators of Food Spoilage. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2022, 14, 12, 14654–14667

Semiconductors: The Building Blocks of Modern Technology

The global semiconductor industry is on the rise, with the potential to grow into a trillion-dollar industry by the end of the decade. In tandem, scientists continue to advance the field with quality research in semiconductor technology and applications. Here, we explore recent advances in semiconductor research across ACS Publications journals.

Tiny Powerhouses

Semiconductors are a class of crystalline solids whose electrical conductivity exists between that of a conductor, such as aluminum or copper, and an insulator, such as ceramic or glass—hence their “semi” conductive nature.1 These diverse substances, including two-dimensional (2D) materials, optoelectronics, and optical devices, have become the fundamental components of modern electronic technology.

Progress Toward Next-Generation Devices

In addition to silicon, novel materials such as graphene also have a high potential for applications as semiconductors in electronic devices. However, their high contact resistance makes them susceptible to overheating, and this limits their practical applications. Some scientists have begun investigating various options to lower the contact resistance, making 2D semiconductors a promising candidate for broader use in electronics.2

Some 2D semiconductor materials have recently been shown to exhibit magnetic properties, which could make them extremely useful for next-generation spintronic devices and information technology, such as logic circuits that utilize the spin interactions of electrons. By applying magnetic and other enhanced properties of certain semiconductors, spintronic devices could reduce energy consumption while increasing processing capabilities, making them a viable alternative to traditional electronics.3 To enhance these magnetic properties, one study explores doping suitable magnetic materials into host semiconductors at room temperature.3 Others are examining strategies to develop more high-temperature 2D magnetic semiconductors that could also one day be widely used in spintronics applications.4

The role of semiconductors in optoelectronic technology and applications has grown significantly in recent years. Semiconductor nanocrystals have displayed great potential in optoelectronics applications such as light-emitting diodes and lasers5, and organic–inorganic hybrid semiconductors such as organometal halide perovskites are also encouraging candidates for next-generation optoelectronics.6

A (Machine) Learning Process

Machine Learning (ML) is a growing field that has transformed research processes across various industries, including semiconductor production. For example, developing new semiconductors with high thermal conductivity may aid in heat management and energy conservation for device cooling—and ML algorithms can rapidly and accurately generate screenings to predict different semiconductor material properties, evaluate their potential applications, and create simulation models for extreme conditions.7

A recent study in ACS Applied Nano Materials describes a method for deep-learning-based microscopic imagery deblurring (MID), which helps to more accurately identify 2D semiconductors and may be useful in the industrial manufacturing process.8

Powering Renewable Energy Sources

Outside of the electronics industry, another important area of interest is the powerful role of semiconductors in sustainable energy generation. Researchers recently reported on a new type of semiconductor alloy “nanoflower” with great potential for use in water splitting and hydrogen production.9

Harnessing the power of the sun is no simple task, but semiconductors are also proving themselves essential for the future of solar energy conversion. The growing demand for effective yet inexpensive photovoltaic materials has prompted some to begin exploring alternative semiconductor options—such as copper sulfide (CuS), which could have great success in improving the stability and photoconversion efficiency in perovskite solar cells.10

Another study describes a strategy for improving perovskite solar cell performance by introducing 2D material films or semiconducting additives to better balance the charge transport, or the flow of electric current through the solar cell.11

Semiconductors are everywhere in our daily lives, and their impact continues to grow across a multitude of industries and applications. From driving the performance of next-generation electronics to improving technologies for a more sustainable future, these tiny powerhouses are vital for keeping the modern world running.

Further Reading: Recent Semiconductor Research from ACS Journals

  1. Huang, N. et al. Photosynthesis of Hydrogen and Its Synchronous Application in a Hydrogen Fuel Cell: A Comprehensive Experiment in the Undergraduate Teaching Laboratory. J. Chem. Educ. 2022, 99, 9, 3283–3288
  2. Protti, S. and Fagnoni, M. Recent Advances in Light-Induced Selenylation. ACS Org. Inorg. Au 2022, Article ASAP
  3. Park, H. et al. Reduction of the Error in the Electrical Characterization of Organic Field-Effect Transistors Based on Donor–Acceptor Polymer Semiconductors. ACS Appl. Electron. Mater. 2022, 4, 9, 4677–4682
  4. Abdelraouf, O.A.M. et al. Recent Advances in Tunable Metasurfaces: Materials, Design, and Applications. ACS Nano 2022, 16, 9, 13339–13369
  5. Bhall, N. et al. Endorsing a Hidden Plasmonic Mode for Enhancement of LSPR Sensing Performance in Evolved Metal–insulator Geometry Using an Unsupervised Machine Learning Algorithm. ACS Phys. Chem Au 2022, Article ASAP
  6. Shiraishi, Y. et al. Solar-Driven Generation of Hydrogen Peroxide on Phenol–Resorcinol–Formaldehyde Resin Photocatalysts. ACS Mater. Au 2022, 2, 6, 709–718

References

  1. Encyclopedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/science/semiconductor
  2. Wu, Z. et al. Lowering Contact Resistances of Two-Dimensional Semiconductors by Memristive Forming. Nano Lett. 2022, 22, 17, 7094–7103
  3. Kanwal, S. et al. Room-Temperature Ferromagnetism in Cu/Co Co-Doped ZnO Nanoparticles Prepared by the Co-Precipitation Method: For Spintronics Applications. ACS Omega 2022, 7, 36, 32184–32193
  4. Sun, H. et al. High-Temperature Ferromagnetism in a Two-Dimensional Semiconductor with a Rectangular Spin Lattice. J. Phys. Chem. C 2022, 126, 37, 16034–16041
  5. Brumberg, A. et al. Acceleration of Biexciton Radiative Recombination at Low Temperature in CdSe Nanoplatelets. Nano Lett. 2022, 22, 17, 6997–7004
  6. Li, Y. et al. Design of Organic–Inorganic Hybrid Heterostructured Semiconductors via High-Throughput Materials Screening for Optoelectronic Applications. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2022, 144, 36, 16656–16666
  7. Li, M. et al. Machine Learning for Harnessing Thermal Energy: From Materials Discovery to System Optimization. ACS Energy Lett. 2022, 7, 10, 3204–3226
  8. Dong, X. et al. Microscopic Image Deblurring by a Generative Adversarial Network for 2D Nanomaterials: Implications for Wafer-Scale Semiconductor Characterization. ACS Appl. Nano Mater. 2022, 5, 9, 12855–12864
  9. Aher, R. et al. Synthesis, Structural and Optical Properties of ZrBi2Se6 Nanoflowers: A Next-Generation Semiconductor Alloy Material for Optoelectronic Applications. ACS Omega 2022, 7, 36, 31877–31887
  10. Shaikh, G.Y. et al. Structural, Optical, Photoelectrochemical, and Electronic Properties of the Photocathode CuS and the Efficient CuS/CdS Heterojunction. ACS Omega 2022, 7, 34, 30233–30240
  11. Mei, Y. et al. Synergistic Effects of Bipolar Additives on Grain Boundary-Mediated Charge Transport for Efficient Carbon-Based Inorganic Perovskite Solar Cells. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2022, 14, 34, 38963–38971

Celebrate National Chemistry Week 2022 with Resources on the Chemistry of Fabrics from the Journal of Chemical Education

National Chemistry Week, a community-based annual event uniting ACS local sections, businesses, schools, and individuals in communicating and promoting the value of chemistry in our everyday life, is celebrated this year from October 16–22, 2022 with the theme “Fabulous Fibers: The Chemistry of Fabrics.”

The Journal of Chemical Education has a wide range of articles for exploring and experimenting with fabrics through topics such as textile fibers, fabric dyes, treating and cleaning fabrics, and the future of fabrics. These materials can be used to motivate students, illustrate important chemical concepts, and communicate the value of chemistry. Chemistry involving fabrics can be linked to advanced topics in organic, inorganic, analytical, physical, and polymer chemistry. Make the most of this annual celebration by connecting chemistry to students’ everyday lives through resources from the Journal of Chemical Education.

Textile Fibers

From Textiles to Molecules—Teaching about Fibers To Integrate Students’ Macro- and Microscale Knowledge of Materials
Hannah Margel, Bat-Sheva Eylon, and Zahava Scherz
Journal of Chemical Education 2006, 83 (10), 1552
DOI: 10.1021/ed083p1552

A Closer Look at Cotton, Rayon, and Polyester Fibers
Trevor M. Letcher and Nothando S. Lutseke
Journal of Chemical Education 1990, 67 (5), 361
DOI: 10.1021/ed067p36

Textile Chemistry for the Artist
Sara Butler and Sally Malott
Journal of Chemical Education 1981, 58 (4), 295
DOI: 10.1021/ed058p295

Fiber Identification: A Colorful Experiment for All Ages
Jean Allan
Journal of Chemical Education 1990, 67 (3), 256
DOI: 10.1021/ed067p256

Textile Fiber Identification: An Organic-Polymer Laboratory
Robert L. Flachskam and Nancy W. Flachskam
Journal of Chemical Education 1991, 68 (12), 1044
DOI: 10.1021/ed068p1044

Identification and Characterization of Textile Fibers by Thermal Analysis
Fiona M. Gray, Michael J. Smith, and Magda B. Silva
Journal of Chemical Education 2011, 88 (4), 476-479
DOI: 10.1021/ed1004068

Fabric Dyes

Tie-Dyeing with Foraged Acorns and Rust: A Workshop Connecting Green Chemistry and Environmental Science
Christian Machado, Anton O. Oliynyk, and Julian R. Silverman
Journal of Chemical Education 2022, 99 (6), 2431-2437
DOI: 10.1021/acs.jchemed.2c00086

A Green Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution Reaction
Liza Abraham
Journal of Chemical Education 2020, 97 (10), 3810-3815
DOI: 10.1021/acs.jchemed.0c00181

Tie-Dye! An Engaging Activity To Introduce Polymers and Polymerization to Beginning Chemistry Students
A. M. R. P. Bopegedera
Journal of Chemical Education 2017, 94 (11), 1725-1732
DOI: 10.1021/acs.jchemed.6b00796

Introducing Students to Fundamental Chemistry Concepts and Basic Research through a Chemistry of Fashion Course for Nonscience Majors
Karen A. Tallman
Journal of Chemical Education 2019, 96 (9), 1906-1913
DOI: 10.1021/acs.jchemed.8b00826

Colors to Dye for: Preparation of Natural Dyes
Journal of Chemical Education Staff
Journal of Chemical Education 1999, 76 (12), 1688A-1688B
DOI: 10.1021/ed076p1688A

Cooking Up Colors from Plants, Fabric, and Metal
Jennifer E. Mihalick and Kathleen M. Donnelly
Journal of Chemical Education 2007, 84 (1), 96A
DOI: 10.1021/ed084p96A

Using Metals To Change the Colors of Natural Dyes
Jennifer E. Mihalick and Kathleen M. Donnelly
Journal of Chemical Education 2006, 83 (10), 1550
DOI: 10.1021/ed083p1550

The Chemistry of Fabric Reactive Dyes
Marcia C. Bonneau
Journal of Chemical Education 1995, 72 (8), 724
DOI: 10.1021/ed072p724

The Chemistry of Plant and Animal Dyes
Margareta Sequin-Frey
Journal of Chemical Education 1981, 58 (4), 301
DOI: 10.1021/ed058p301

Colors for Textiles—Ancient and Modern
Max Bender
Journal of Chemical Education 1947, 24 (1), 2
DOI: 10.1021/ed024p2

Growth of the Dyestuffs Industry: The Application of Science to Art
R. E. Rose
Journal of Chemical Education 1926, 3 (9), 973
DOI: 10.1021/ed003p973

Treating and Cleaning Fabrics

CO2 Dry Cleaning: A Benign Solvent Demonstration Accessible to K–8 Audiences
Reuben Hudson, Henry M. Ackerman, Lindsay K. Gallo, Addison S. Gwinner, Anna Krauss, John D. Sears, Alexandra Bishop, Kristin N. Esdale, and Jeffrey L. Katz
Journal of Chemical Education 2017, 94 (4), 480-482
DOI: 10.1021/acs.jchemed.6b00412

Experimenting with Synthesis and Analysis of Cationic Gemini Surfactants in a Second-Semester General Chemistry Laboratory
Mary E. Anzovino, Andrew E. Greenberg, and John W. Moore
Journal of Chemical Education 2015, 92 (3), 524-528
DOI: 10.1021/ed500395u

Using a Flatbed Scanner To Measure Detergency: A Cost-Effective Undergraduate Laboratory
J. A. Poce-Fatou, M. Bethencourt, F. J. Moreno-Dorado, and J. M. Palacios-Santander
Journal of Chemical Education 2011, 88 (9), 1314-1317
DOI: 10.1021/ed100635z

Future of Fabrics

Transforming a Classic Polymer Demonstration into a Flexible, Inquiry-Based Laboratory Experience for Lower and Upper Division Laboratories
Ani Nvehr Davis, Stephan Georgiev Michaelov, Clayton Joshua Rogers, Leighann Rose Weber, Brycelyn Marie Boardman, and Gretchen Marie Peters
Journal of Chemical Education Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/acs.jchemed.2c00361

Detecting Microplastics in Soil and Sediment in an Undergraduate Environmental Chemistry Laboratory Experiment That Promotes Skill Building and Encourages Environmental Awareness
Laura Rowe, Maria Kubalewski, Robert Clark, Emily Statza, Thomas Goyne, Katie Leach, and Julie Peller
Journal of Chemical Education 2019, 96 (2), 323-328
DOI: 10.1021/acs.jchemed.8b00392

Chemical Oxidative Polymerization of Polyaniline: A Practical Approach for Preparation of Smart Conductive Textiles
Nedal Y. Abu-Thabit
Journal of Chemical Education 2016, 93 (9), 1606-1611
DOI: 10.1021/acs.jchemed.6b00060

Synthesis, Characterization, and Secondary Structure Determination of a Silk-Inspired, Self-Assembling Peptide: A Laboratory Exercise for Organic and Biochemistry Courses
Tyler J. Albin, Melany M. Fry, and Amanda R. Murphy
Journal of Chemical Education 2014, 91 (11), 1981-1984
DOI: 10.1021/ed5001203

Chemistry of Durable and Regenerable Biocidal Textiles
Gang Sun and S. Dave Worley
Journal of Chemical Education 2005, 82 (1), 60
DOI: 10.1021/ed082p60

Using Fabrics to Teach Chemical Concepts

The Hunt for Maya Purple: Revisiting Ancient Pigments Syntheses and Properties
Jean-Yves Winum, Laurent Bernaud, and Jean-Sébastien Filhol
Journal of Chemical Education 2021, 98 (4), 1389-1396
DOI: 10.1021/acs.jchemed.0c01306

An Advanced Spectroscopy Lab That Integrates Art, Commerce, and Science as Students Determine the Electronic Structure of the Common Pigment Carminic Acid
Suqing Liu, Asami Odate, Isabella Buscarino, Jacqueline Chou, Kathleen Frommer, Margeaux Miller, Alison Scorese, Marisa C. Buzzeo, and Rachel Narehood Austin
Journal of Chemical Education 2017, 94 (2), 216-220
DOI: 10.1021/acs.jchemed.6b00644

Adsorption of a Textile Dye on Commercial Activated Carbon: A Simple Experiment To Explore the Role of Surface Chemistry and Ionic Strength
Angela Martins and Nelson Nunes
Journal of Chemical Education 2015, 92 (1), 143-147
DOI: 10.1021/ed500055v

Analysis of a Natural Yellow Dye: An Experiment for Analytical Organic Chemistry
Alexandre Villela, Goverdina C. H. Derksen, and Teris A. van Beek
Journal of Chemical Education 2014, 91 (4), 566-569
DOI: 10.1021/ed400331f

Identification of Onion Dye Chromophores in the Dye Bath and Dyed Wool by HPLC-DAD: An Educational Approach
Cristina Barrocas Dias, Marco Miranda, Ana Manhita, António Candeias, Teresa Ferreira, and Dora Teixeira
Journal of Chemical Education 2013, 90 (11), 1498-1500
DOI: 10.1021/ed100668k

Accurate, Photoresistor-Based, Student-Built Photometer and Its Application to the Forensic Analysis of Dyes
Anna L. Adams-McNichol, Rayf C. Shiell, and David A. Ellis
Journal of Chemical Education 2019, 96 (6), 1143-1151
DOI: 10.1021/acs.jchemed.8b00862

Adsorption Kinetics and Isotherms: A Safe, Simple, and Inexpensive Experiment for Three Levels of Students
Polly R. Piergiovanni
Journal of Chemical Education 2014, 91 (4), 560-565
DOI: 10.1021/ed400267j

ACS Publications Celebrates National Nanotechnology Day 2022

National Nanotechnology Day is an annual event held in recognition and celebration of the many ways in which nanotechnology impacts and enriches our daily lives. It occurs on the same day each year—October 9—in honor of the nanometer scale, 10-9 meters.

This year, National Nanotechnology Day focuses on the role nanotechnology plays in addressing the challenges and effects of climate change and helping us move toward a more sustainable future. To mark the occasion, we have provided a handpicked collection of recent, highly read papers from ACS Publications journals in this area.

Covering everything from smart textiles for healthcare to the applications of carbon dots for drought-resistant soybean crops, this selection showcases a wealth of innovative, cutting-edge nanotechnology research from ACS Publications authors around the world.

Explore Recent Nanotechnology Research from ACS Journals

Sustainable 3D Printing of Recyclable Biocomposite Empowered by Flash Graphene

Sustainable 3D Printing of Recyclable Biocomposite Empowered by Flash Graphene
ACS Nano 2022
DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.2c08157

 

Wood-Based Self-Supporting Nanoporous Three-Dimensional Electrode for High-Efficiency Battery Deionization

Wood-Based Self-Supporting Nanoporous Three-Dimensional Electrode for High-Efficiency Battery Deionization
Nano Lett. 2022, 22, 18, 7572–7578
DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.2c02583

 

Long-Term Stable Elastocaloric Effect in a Heusler-Type Co51V33Ga16 Polycrystalline Alloy

Long-Term Stable Elastocaloric Effect in a Heusler-Type Co51V33Ga16 Polycrystalline Alloy
ACS Appl. Energy Mater. 2022
DOI: 10.1021/acsaem.2c02567

 

Long-Term Stable Elastocaloric Effect in a Heusler-Type Co51V33Ga16 Polycrystalline Alloy

Safe, Durable, and Sustainable Self-Powered Smart Contact Lenses
ACS Nano 2022
DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.2c05452

 

Tough, Highly Oriented, Super Thermal Insulating Regenerated All-Cellulose Sponge-Aerogel Fibers Integrating a Graded Aligned Nanostructure
Nano Lett. 2022, 22, 9, 3516–3524
DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.1c03943

 

Wool Keratin Nanoparticle-Based Micropatterns for Cellular Guidance Applications

Wool Keratin Nanoparticle-Based Micropatterns for Cellular Guidance Applications
ACS Appl. Nano Mater. 2022
DOI: 10.1021/acsanm.2c03116

 

Smart Textiles for Healthcare and Sustainability

Smart Textiles for Healthcare and Sustainability
ACS Nano 2022, 16, 9, 13301–13313
DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.2c06287

 

Near-Perfect Absorbing Copper Metamaterial for Solar Fuel Generation

Near-Perfect Absorbing Copper Metamaterial for Solar Fuel Generation
Nano Lett. 2021, 21, 21, 9124–9130
DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.1c02886

 

Organocatalytic Enantioselective Synthesis of Axially Chiral Molecules: Development of Strategies and Skeletons

Organocatalytic Enantioselective Synthesis of Axially Chiral Molecules: Development of Strategies and Skeletons
Acc. Chem. Res. 2022
DOI: 10.1021/acs.accounts.2c00509

 

Carbon Dots Improve Nitrogen Bioavailability to Promote the Growth and Nutritional Quality of Soybeans under Drought Stress

Carbon Dots Improve Nitrogen Bioavailability to Promote the Growth and Nutritional Quality of Soybeans under Drought Stress
ACS Nano 2022, 16, 8, 12415–12424
DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.2c03591

 

Outdoor Personal Thermal Management with Simultaneous Electricity Generation

Outdoor Personal Thermal Management with Simultaneous Electricity Generation
Nano Lett. 2021, 21, 9, 3879–3886
DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.1c00400

 

Poly(cannabinoid)s: Hemp-Derived Biocompatible Thermoplastic Polyesters with Inherent Antioxidant Properties

Poly(cannabinoid)s: Hemp-Derived Biocompatible Thermoplastic Polyesters with Inherent Antioxidant Properties
ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2022
DOI: 10.1021/acsami.2c05556

 

Star Polymers with Designed Reactive Oxygen Species Scavenging and Agent Delivery Functionality Promote Plant Stress Tolerance

Star Polymers with Designed Reactive Oxygen Species Scavenging and Agent Delivery Functionality Promote Plant Stress Tolerance
ACS Nano 2022, 16, 3, 4467–4478
DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.1c10828

 

Designing Mesoporous Photonic Structures for High-Performance Passive Daytime Radiative Cooling

Designing Mesoporous Photonic Structures for High-Performance Passive Daytime Radiative Cooling
Nano Lett. 2021, 21, 3, 1412–1418
DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.0c04241

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Further Reading

JOURNALS
Accounts of Chemical Research
ACS Applied Energy Materials
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces

ACS Applied Nano Materials
ACS Nano
Nano Letters

ARTICLES
Early Career Forum
ACS Appl. Nano Mater. 2022

Forum Focused on Australian Authors
ACS Appl. Nano Mater. 2022

SPECIAL ISSUES
Self-Assembled Nanomaterials
Acc. Chem. Res. 2022

The 2022 Nobel Prize in Chemistry Goes to Carolyn R. Bertozzi, Morten Meldal, and K. Barry Sharpless

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2022 was awarded to Carolyn R. Bertozzi, Morten Meldal, and K. Barry Sharpless “for the development of click chemistry and bioorthogonal chemistry,” which involve simple, quick chemical reactions that can occur within living organisms without disrupting normal biological functions.

“We are absolutely delighted with these awards, which recognize the enormous impact of click chemistry and bioorthogonal chemistry,” says ACS President Angela K. Wilson. “This type of chemistry links together chemical building blocks in a predictable way, almost like Lego®. Putting these building blocks together opens up a range of possibilities from drug development to materials to diagnostics.”

Bertozzi has a long-standing history with ACS. She has been a member for 32 years and is an ACS Fellow. She is also the founding and current Editor-in-Chief of ACS Central Science, the first fully open-access journal from ACS Publications. She has won numerous awards; notably, the Roger Adams Award in Organic Chemistry for 2023; the Arthur C. Cope Award in 2017; the ACS Award in Pure Chemistry in 2001; and an Arthur C. Cope Scholar Award in 1999. She has published more than 150 articles ACS journals and provided thought-provoking commentary in many editorials, a collection of which we have shared below.

Meldal has been a member of ACS for 14 years. In 2009, he received the Ralph F. Hirschmann Award in Peptide Chemistry. Meldal has published over 40 articles in ACS journals.

Sharpless is no stranger to the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. He received the award in 2001 for his work on chirally catalyzed oxidation reactions. An ACS Fellow, Sharpless has been a member of the Society for 59 years and has published almost 150 articles in ACS journals. He also coined the term “click chemistry” at the 217th ACS National Meeting in 1999 in his abstract, “Click Chemistry: A Concept for Merging Process and Discovery Chemistry.” He has received many awards, including the Priestley Medal (sponsored by ACS) in 2019; the Roger Adams Award in Organic Chemistry in 1997; the Arthur C. Cope Award in 1992; an Arthur C. Cope Scholar Award in 1986; and the ACS Award for Creative Work in Synthetic Organic Chemistry, in 1983.

All three winners have each published extensively in ACS Publications journals throughout the years. The following articles from each of the laureates, as well as a collection of additional papers associated with the winning research, will be made free-to-read for the remainder of 2022 in honor of their win.

Carolyn R. Bertozzi

A Strain-Promoted [3 + 2] Azide−alkyne Cycloaddition for Covalent Modification of Biomolecules in Living Systems
J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2004, 126, 46, 15046–15047
DOI: 10.1021/ja044996f

Aminooxy-, Hydrazide-, and Thiosemicarbazide-Functionalized Saccharides: Versatile Reagents for Glycoconjugate Synthesis
J. Org. Chem. 1998, 63, 21, 7134–7135
DOI: 10.1021/jo981351n

A “Traceless” Staudinger Ligation for the Chemoselective Synthesis of Amide Bonds
Org. Lett. 2000, 2, 14, 2141–2143
DOI: 10.1021/ol006054v

A Fluorogenic Dye Activated by the Staudinger Ligation
J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2003, 125, 16, 4708–4709
DOI: 10.1021/ja029013y

Chemoselective Approaches to Glycoprotein Assembly
Acc. Chem. Res. 2001, 34, 9, 727–736
DOI: 10.1021/ar9901570

Rapid Cu-Free Click Chemistry with Readily Synthesized Biarylazacyclooctynones
J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2010, 132, 11, 3688–3690
DOI: 10.1021/ja100014q

Second-Generation Difluorinated Cyclooctynes for Copper-Free Click Chemistry
J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2008, 130, 34, 11486–11493
DOI: 10.1021/ja803086r

A Comparative Study of Bioorthogonal Reactions with Azides
ACS Chem. Biol. 2006, 1, 10, 644–648
DOI: 10.1021/cb6003228

Morten Meldal

Peptidotriazoles on Solid Phase:  [1,2,3]-Triazoles by Regiospecific Copper(I)-Catalyzed 1,3-Dipolar Cycloadditions of Terminal Alkynes to Azides
J. Org. Chem. 2002, 67, 9, 3057–3064
DOI: 10.1021/jo011148j

K. Barry Sharpless

Copper(I)-Catalyzed Synthesis of Azoles. DFT Study Predicts Unprecedented Reactivity and Intermediates
J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127, 1, 210–216
DOI: 10.1021/ja0471525 

Related ACS Publications Articles

Influence of strain on chemical reactivity. Relative reactivity of torsionally strained double bonds in 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions
Shea, K. J. and Kim, J. S. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1992, 114, 12, 4846–4855
DOI: 10.1021/ja00038a059

Heats of hydrogenation. IX. Cyclic acetylenes and some miscellaneous olefins
Turner, R. B. et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1973, 95, 3, 790–792.
DOI: 10.1021/ja00784a025

Staudinger Ligation: A Peptide from a Thioester and Azide
Nilsson, B. L. et al. Org. Lett. 2000, 2, 13, 1939–1941
DOI: 10.1021/ol0060174

A new amino protecting group removable by reduction. Chemistry of the dithiasuccinoyl (Dts) function
Barany, G. and Merrifield, R. B. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1977, 99, 22, 7363–7365
DOI: 10.1021/ja00464a050

Tetrazine Ligation: Fast Bioconjugation Based on Inverse-Electron-Demand Diels−Alder Reactivity
Blackman, M. et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2008, 130, 41, 13518–13519
DOI: 10.1021/ja8053805

Tetrazine-Based Cycloadditions: Application to Pretargeted Live Cell Imaging
Devaraj, N. K. et al. Bioconjugate Chem. 2008, 19, 12, 2297–2299
DOI: 10.1021/bc8004446

Learn More About the 2022 Nobel Prize in Chemistry winners in C&EN.

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Further Reading

Articles: Carolyn R. Bertozzi

From Mechanism to Mouse: A Tale of Two Bioorthogonal Reactions
Acc. Chem. Res. 2011, 44, 9, 666–676
DOI: 10.1021/ar200148z

Cell Surface Engineering by a Modified Staudinger Reaction
https://www.science.org/doi/full/10.1126/science.287.5460.2007

Copper-free click chemistry for dynamic in vivo imaging
https://www.pnas.org/doi/abs/10.1073/pnas.0707090104

Engineering Chemical Reactivity on Cell Surfaces Through Oligosaccharide Biosynthesis
https://www.science.org/doi/full/10.1126/science.276.5315.1125

Copper-Free Click Chemistry in Living Animals
https://www.pnas.org/doi/abs/10.1073/pnas.0911116107

In Vivo Imaging of Membrane-Associated Glycans in Developing Zebrafish
https://www.science.org/doi/full/10.1126/science.1155106

Articles: Morten Meldal

Peptidotriazoles: Copper(I)-Catalyzed 1,3-Dipolar Cycloadditions on Solid-Phase
Peptides: The Wave of the Future. American Peptide Symposia, vol 7. Springer, Dordrecht.
DOI: 10.1007/978-94-010-0464-0_119

Computational Evolution of Threonine-Rich β-Hairpin Peptides Mimicking Specificity and Affinity of Antibodies
ACS Cent. Sci. 2019, 5, 2, 259–269
DOI: 10.1021/acscentsci.8b00614

Cu-Catalyzed Azide−Alkyne Cycloaddition
Chem. Rev. 2008, 108, 8, 2952–3015
DOI: 10.1021/cr0783479

Articles: K. Barry Sharpless

Sulfur [18F]Fluoride Exchange Click Chemistry Enabled Ultrafast LateStage Radiosynthesis
J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2021, 143, 10, 3753–3763
DOI: 10.1021/jacs.0c09306

Sulfur(VI) Fluoride Exchange (SuFEx)-Enabled High-Throughput Medicinal Chemistry
J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2020, 142, 25, 10899–10904
DOI: 10.1021/jacs.9b13652

SuFEx Click Chemistry Enabled Late-Stage Drug Functionalization
J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2018, 140, 8, 2919–2925
DOI: 10.1021/jacs.7b12788

In Situ Click Chemistry:  Enzyme Inhibitors Made to Their Own Specifications
J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2004, 126, 40, 12809–12818
DOI: 10.1021/ja046382g

Editorials: Carolyn R. Bertozzi

The Centrality of Chemistry (Inaugural ACS Central Science editorial)
ACS Cent. Sci. 2015, 1, 1, 1–2
DOI: 10.1021/acscentsci.5b00090

Achieving Gender Balance in the Chemistry Professoriate Is Not Rocket Science
ACS Cent. Sci. 2016, 2, 4, 181–182
DOI: 10.1021/acscentsci.6b00102

Ingredients for a Positive Safety Culture
ACS Cent. Sci. 2016, 2, 11, 764–766
DOI: 10.1021/acscentsci.6b00341

Postdoc Labor Love
ACS Cent. Sci. 2016, 2, 6, 359–360
DOI: 10.1021/acscentsci.6b00167

A Decade of Bioorthogonal Chemistry
Acc. Chem. Res. 2011, 44, 9, 651–653
DOI: 10.1021/ar200193f

Related Special Issues

Bioorthogonal Chemistry in Biology Special Issue

The 2022 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine Goes to Svante Pääbo

Svante Paabo, winner of the 2022 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine

Credit: Frank Vinken/Max Planck Society

Svante Pääbo of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology was awarded the 2022 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine “for his discoveries concerning the genomes of extinct hominins and human evolution,” which have unlocked new understandings of genetic relationships between modern humans and our ancient relatives.

Pääbo’s groundbreaking research has led to many novel discoveries about our evolutionary history and what makes us “uniquely human.” Notably, he and his colleagues successfully sequenced the entire Neanderthal genome, and he later discovered an entirely new hominin species, Denisova, by sequencing DNA from a well-preserved finger bone found in a Siberian cave.

These findings led Pääbo to help establish Paleogenomics, a novel field of science based on reconstructing and analyzing ancient DNA from extinct specimens. Pääbo’s discoveries have provided promising insights into how the gene flow from our ancient ancestors to modern-day humans influences physiological functions such as sleep cycles, immune responses to certain infections, and survival in high-altitude settings.

Pääbo has previously published work in Journal of Proteome Research, where he and his team analyzed differences in protein expression between humans and primates.

Read more about Svante Pääbo and his research in Chemical & Engineering News

Helping People Breathe Easy

An ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science Virtual Issue explores the molecular mechanisms and management of chronic respiratory diseases. 

The lungs are constantly exposed to a mix of noxious agents present in the air, including particles, chemicals, and infectious organisms.1  Globally, respiratory diseases cause a significant burden and are a leading cause of premature mortality.2 Even before the COVID-19 pandemic, lower respiratory infections were the leading cause of communicable death—responsible for more than 2 million deaths in 2019 and rising sharply in 2020.2 Despite this, many chronic respiratory conditions are poorly understood, and lack effective disease-modifying therapies.

This Virtual Issue in ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science showcases publications in three categories: SARS-CoV-2 infections, cystic fibrosis, and chronic respiratory diseases—looking at the role of chemistry in pushing the boundaries of basic, translational, and clinical research.3

The Next Generation of COVID-19 Treatments

By now, we are all very familiar with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)—the new coronavirus that causes COVID-19 infection and that resulted in a global pandemic being declared in March 2020 by the World Health Organization. The speed at which COVID-19 vaccines were developed was remarkable, but scientists are now tackling the issue of vaccine-resistant variants. One study summarizes how next-generation COVID-19 vaccines can prevent the emergence of these variants by circumventing antigenic drift while defusing viral infections.4

Others are turning their attention to potential drug targets for COVID-19 infections, employing a hybrid in silico approach to build novel inhibitors of multiple variants using both machine learning and pharmacophore-based modeling.5

Several papers examine the dynamic structure–function and structure–free energy relationships of the virus’s main protease (Mpro), with a focus on characterizing the mechanism of action of six novel inhibitors directed against this structure.6,7 When used in combination with traditional antivirals, some of these agents show synergistic activity against SARS-CoV-2 replication.8 There is also a potential role for peptide-based antiviral therapy that blocks the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) prior to entry—the connecting point between the virus and the human surface receptor protein.9

New Approaches to Cystic Fibrosis Therapy

Cystic fibrosis is thought to affect at least 160,000 people worldwide, and many—particularly those in low-resource areas—are unable to access proper treatment.10 This Virtual Issue provides a review of preclinical and clinical emerging cystic fibrosis conductance regulators (CFTR modulators), examining their in vitro pharmacology and translation to the clinic.11 This is complemented by a summary of current knowledge about the use of CFTR modulators during pregnancy.12

Looking at Biomarkers for Chronic Respiratory Diseases

Addressing the burden of respiratory diseases requires improved diagnosis as well as treatment. One possibility is in identifying biomarkers for chronic respiratory diseases, such as interleukin (IL)-33 in COPD and asthma, or organoids and lung-on-a-chip in pulmonary fibrosis.13,14

With these recent advances in the field of respiratory diseases, the horizon looks optimistic for several approaches to translate into real-life patient applications.

Read the Special Issue

References

  1. Wisnivesky J, de-Torres JP. The Global Burden of Pulmonary Diseases: Most Prevalent Problems and Opportunities for Improvement. Annals of Global Health 2019;85(1):1.
  2. Leading causes of death globally. World Health Organization 2020.
  3. Virtual Issue: Chronic Conditions Affecting Lungs and Airways. ACS Pharmacol Transl Sci 2022.
  4. Fernández A. Toward the Next-Generation COVID-19 Vaccines That Circumvent Antigenic Drift while Defusing Viral Infection. ACS Pharmacol Transl Sci 2021;4:1018–1020.
  5. Jain S, et al. Hybrid In Silico Approach Reveals Novel Inhibitors of Multiple SARS-CoV-2 Variants. ACS Pharmacol Transl Sci 2021;4:1675–1688.
  6. Wan H, et al. Probing the Dynamic Structure-Function and Structure-Free Energy Relationships of the Coronavirus Main Protease with Biodynamics Theory. ACS Pharmacol Transl Sci 2020;3:1111–1143.
  7. Ma C, et al. Ebselen, Disulfiram, Carmofur, PX-12, Tideglusib, and Shikonin Are Nonspecific Promiscuous SARS-CoV-2 Main Protease Inhibitors. ACS Pharmacol Transl Sci 2020;3:1265–1277.
  8. Chen T, et al. Synergistic Inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 Replication Using Disulfiram/Ebselen and Remdesivir. ACS Pharmacol Transl Sci 2021;4:898–907.
  9. Maiti BK. Potential Role of Peptide-Based Antiviral Therapy Against SARS-CoV-2 Infection. ACS Pharmacol Transl Sci 2020;3:783–785.
  10. Guo J, et al. Worldwide rates of diagnosis and effective treatment for cystic fibrosis. J Cyst Fibros 2022;21(3):456–462.
  11. Ghelani DP, Schneider-Futschik EK. Emerging Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Modulators as New Drugs for Cystic Fibrosis: A Portrait of in Vitro Pharmacology and Clinical Translation. ACS Pharmacol Transl Sci 2020;3:4–10.
  12. Qiu F, et al. Balance between the Safety of Mother, Fetus, and Newborn Undergoing Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Treatments during Pregnancy. ACS Pharmacol Transl Sci 2020;3:835–843.
  13. Donovan C, Hansbro, PM. IL-33 in Chronic Respiratory Disease: From Preclinical to Clinical Studies. ACS Pharmacol Transl Sci 2020;3:56–62.
  14. Jeong MH, et al. Recent Advances in Molecular Diagnosis of Pulmonary Fibrosis for Precision Medicine. ACS Pharmacol Transl Sci 2022;5:520–538.